Friday 19 April 2013


Latest Addition :   

August 4, 2018:  200 words and phrases from Peteronius (P), especially the Cena Trimalchionis. More being added.  

Previous Additions:

  April 19, 2013:  250 words and phrases from Erasmus' Colloquia Familiaria.  Erasmus drew his Latin vocabulary and phraseology from the whole range of ancient authors, from Plautus to some of the early church fathers.  Among his favorite sources were Terence, Cicero, and Aulus Gellius.  See Terence Tunberg, "The Latinity of Erasmus and Medieval Latin:  Continuities and Discontinuities" The Journal of Medieval Latin 14(-1):147--170 (January 2004). Also D.F.S. Thomson, "The Latinity of Erasmus" in Erasmus, ed. T.A. Dorey, London (1970): 115-137.

March 21, 2013:  240 words and phrases from Terence, Cicero, Persius and Erasmus.

January 1, 2013:  125 words and phrases from Frontinus Libri Strategematon.

Sept. 22, 2012:  Chapters from Comenius' Ianua Linguarum Reserata with English translations.  Material from this source continues to be added.  So far articles can be found under agriculture, barber, bath, bedroom, body, dine, earth, garden, house, human, marriage, sensation, weather.  

June 8, 2012:  200 words and phrases from Plautus.

May 27, 2012:  100 words and phrases from Frontinus Libri Strategematon:  A useful source of Latin equivalents for the many military expressions used in ordinary conversation. 

May 9, 2012:  170 colour terms, including the classical terms, and expanded with the botanical nomenclature.  See "colour terms" in the C-blog.  

May 3, 2012:  175 words and phrases from Seneca's Epistulae Morales.

February 23, 2012:  100 words and phrases from Horace, Persius, Petronius

December 5, 2011:  200 words and phrases from Aulus Gellius  

November 27, 20i1:  240 words and phrases from Terence.

November 18, 2011:  250 words and phrases from Plautus.

Original version of glossary posted:  October. 24, 2011

Monday 24 October 2011



To abduct s.o.:  eripere aliquem (T) 


What about me?/ you? etc.  Quid ego?  Quid tu?  (Pl) (H)


From above:  superne (Fr)

Above all: praeter cetera (C)


From abroad:  peregre
            A person returning from abroad:  peregre rediens (T)


Absolutely:  plane (T) 
            She is absolutely beautiful:  plane pulchra est

Absolutely:  oppido (Pl)
     What I'm wearing is absolutely everything that I own:  hoc quod indutus sum summae opes oppido (Pl)

Absolutely (as an affirmative answer):  oppido  (T)


Abstemious:  abstinax, -acis (P)


Absurd:  insubidus, -a, -um (AG)

Absurd:   ridiculus, -a, -um (T)
      It's absurd!  ridiculum!


Verbal abuse:  maledicta, -orum (Pl)

To abuse s.o. (verbally):  alicui male loqui (Pl)  alicui male dicere (Pl)

To pour all kinds of abuse on s.o.:  alicui omnia mala ingerere

Abusive:  contumeliosus, -a, -um (C)
     He speaks abusively about people behind their backs:  contumeliose dicit de absentibus.

Abuse, terms of

Ass  asinus (T)
Asshole:  culus  (Pl, M)
Blockhead   caudex (T) cucurbita (P)
Buffoon:  balatro, -onis (H)
Dolt: lapis (T)
Dullard:  bardus (H)
Goof:  verbero (P) balatro (H)
Jerk: verbero (P)
Nincompoop:  plumbeus (T)
Numbskull:  stipes  (T)


To accept that ….  sino, sinere + indirect statement
            I accept that you acted on maternal feelings:  sino te fecisse animo materno (T)

Generally accepted:  probabilis -e (AG)
     A generally accepted rule of old-time discipline:  institutum antiquae disciplinae probabile


To give someone access to s.o/ s.t:  alicui facere copiam alicuius/ alicuius rei (T)

For someone to have access to s.t.:  alicui esse copia alicuius rei (AG)  
      If I had had access to the book:  si libri copia mihi fuisset

To gain access to somewhere:  admitti in   (CN)

To get access to someone:  accedere aliquem (T)

To try to get access to someone:  ad aliquem adfectare viam (Pl)


He danced to the accompaniment of an organ:  hydraule cantante saltavit (P)

Accomplish/ achieve

To accomplish/ achieve one’s purpose:  consilium consequi  (AG)

An achievement:  facinus -oris (T)  (C)  usually modified:  magnum/ praeclarum/ pulcherrimum/ memorabile facinus


Of one's own accord:  sua sponte (T)

In accordance with:  convenienter + dat. (T)


To accost someone:  appellare aliquem (Fr)


To give an account of something:  rationem reddere alicuius rei (Fr)

To give an account of how....  narrare quomodo (C)

To take s.t. into account:  alicui rei consulere (Er)
     I will take your laziness into account:  tuae pigritiae consulam.


Accurately/ exactly:  examussim (Pl)


To accustom s.o. to doing/ not doing s.t.:  aliquem assuefacere ut/ ne quid faciat   (T)


To achieve a great deal:  plurimum consequi (F)

An achievement:  facinus -oris (T)  (C)  usually modified:  magnum/ praeclarum/ pulcherrimum/ memorabile facinus


An acquaintance:  notus, -i /  nota, -ae (T)

Acquaintance (i.e. a being acquainted with someone else):  notitia (T)
            Our acquaintance is recent:  notitia inter nos recens est (T)


To acquiesce to s.o:  decedere alicui  (Fr)


To be caught in the act:  manifestarius esse  (Pl)


To be out of action:  cessare (T)

To be ready for action:  esse in praecinctu (AG)

To die in action:  in actu mori (S)


To know how to adapt:  scire uti foro (T)
            He knows how to adapt:  scit uti foro

To adapt to something:  alicui rei adsuescere (Lv).
            They are adapting to our way of life:  nostris legibus et institutis adsuescunt.


In addition to:  praeterquam  (AG)
      But Lucilius, in addition to what I said above, shows it more plainly in another passage:  Lucilius autem, praeterquam supra posui, alio quoque in loco, id manifestius demonstrat.


To adhere to something:  alicui rei tenacem esse (F)


Adjacent to:  applicitus, -a, -um + dat. (F)


To adjust s.t. to s.t.:  aliquid ad aliquid adtemperare (Er)


To address s.o. (verbally):  aliquem adloqui (Er)


An adulterer:  mirator cunni albi (H)


To be advanced/ have advanced knowledge in something:  perfectus esse aliqua re (Fr)


An advantage:  commodum, -i (Pl) (T)  emolumentum, -i (AG)  utilitas, -atis (AG)  fructus, -us (Er)

To take advantage of s.t.:  aliqua re uti  (H)  (V)  (Lv)

To turn s.t. to one's own advantage:  aliquid convertere ad suas utilitates (F)


To give good advice:  recta consilia dare (T)/  recte monere (Pl)

To take s.o.'s advice:  alicui obsequellam facere (PL)

If you ask my advice:  si me consulas (Pl)

That's my advice:  sic censeo (Pl)

Good advice!  Bene admonuisti!  (P)


Love affair:  amores, -um (T)

To have an affair (i.e. love affair) with s.o.:  consuescere cum aliquo/ aliqua (T)
     He once had a secret love affair with the girl's mother:  olim cum matre puellae clanculum consuevit.

Affairs (such as business affairs, domestic affairs, etc):  res, rerum (Pl) (T)
      Are your affairs OK?  satin salvae res? 


Unaffected:  immeditatus, -a, -um (Ap)


To return s.o.'s affection:  aliquem contra carum habere (T) 

Mutual affection:  mutua charitas (S)


Affluent:  re florens, -ntis (S)


To afford the money:  praestare pecuniam
            I can afford the money for that couch:  pretium illius spondae praestare possum

To afford an expense:  sumptum suppeditare (Pl)
     He can afford the expenses of his extravagance:  potest suppeditare sumptus luxuriae

Not to be able to afford to do s.t.:  egestas non sinit aliquid facere (T)


To be afoot:  agitari  (F)
      He realized that hostilities were afoot:  intellexit hostilia agitari.


To be slightly/ somewhat afraid:  subvereor


Afresh/ anew:   de integro (T)
            To begin s.t. afresh:  incipere aliquid de integro.

To start afresh (intrans):  integrascere (T)
            Malum integrascit:  lit:  the problem starts afresh, i.e., “here we go again.” (T)


Go after/ run after:  sectari (Fr)
            He runs after girls:  puellas sectatur

To take after (i.e. resemble) s.o.:  aliquem referre (C).  He takes after his father:  patrem refert.


An after-thought:  cogitatio posterior (Fr)


Again and again:  etiam atque etiam (T)

Again (introducing a new argument) tum (Fr).

Here we go again!  Sic malum integrascit (T)


I've got nothing against that:  istud nihil detrecto (Er)


Age:  aetas
            You are acting improperly for your age:  praeter aetatem tuam facis.  (T)

Tender age:  aetatula (Er)

To have aged well / to look good for one's age:  aetatem bene ferre (P)

An inappropriate age:  aetas aliena (T)

Under-age:  praetextatus, -a, -um (AG)

Ages ago:  olim oliorum (P) I knew the man ages ago:  noveram hominem olim oliorum.


To play the aggressor:  ultro vim inferre  (Liv)


Long ago:  iam olim (Er)
      He has long ago forgotten that he was ever a kid:   iam olim oblitus est se fuisse puerum.

How long ago?  quam dudum...?  (Pl)
     How long ago did you arrive?  quam dudum pervenisti?

Ten years ago:  abhinc decem annos (T) (C)

A little while ago:  paulo prius (Pl)

Ages ago:  olim oliorum (P).  I knew the man ages ago:  noveram hominem olim oliorum.  [Note that this expression may be a scribal error, though no one has suggested a satisfactory emendation]


To be in agony (often used of mental agony):  discruciari (T)   excruciari (Cat)   

Agree/ agreed

It is agreed:  convenit
            It is agreed among us that….:  inter nos convenit + indirect statement

I don't agree with this:  hoc mihi non convenit (T)

To break an agreement:  mutare fidem (T)

I agree (i.e. acknowledge the truth of what you say):  fateor (T)  (Er)

To agree on s.t.:  de aliqua re consentire (Lv)


By agreement:  ex compacto (T)

To keep an agreement:  conventum servare (Er)


De Agricultura (Com. ILR. 32)
       On agriculture

Agricola est, qui agrum colit, proventuque annonae se sustentat.
       A farmer is someone who tills the ground and supports himself on the produce of his annual yields.

Cui fundi et praedia conducticia ad tempus praefinitum / praestitutum certa mercede locantur, manceps est;  cui villa creditur, villicus et colonus est.   colonus partiarius fundi fructus cum domino partitur.
     The person to whom rented land and lots are leased at a particular rent / price for a predetermined time is a tenant.  The person to whom a farm house [is rented] is a bailiff and a farmer.  A share-cropper divides the produce of the farm with the landlord.

Arvum subactum et a caespitis radicibus repurgatum, ut sit fecundius / uberius ante sementem stercoratur fimo vel marga.
     A field ploughed and cleared of ground-roots is fertilized with manure or marl before seeding, so that it might be more productive.

Novale et vervactum et requietus ager ex cessatione feracior est recibili :  qui, quantumvis fertilis atque uberrimus, e frequente cultura sterilescit / fit effetus.  
      Virgin and fallow land and a field that has been given a rest is more productive from the intermission of planting than that which is tilled yearly, which, however fertile and fruitful it may be, grows unproductive and worn-out from frequent cultivation.   

Araturus iungit aratro boves, non funibus aut restibus, sed iugo. 
       A person who intends to break the ground couples oxen to his plough, not with ropes or cords, but with a yoke.

Tum agitans et stimulo incitans / concitans subarat (effringit), iterat, tertiat, seminat et occat per liras et versuras. 
        Then driving [the oxen] and spurring [them] on with a goad, he makes an initial furrow, goes over it a second time, furrows a third time, scatters the seed and harrows the ridges [ i.e. the earth thrown up between the furrows] and the turnings [i.e. the earth thrown up at the ends of the furrows]. 

Inter lirandum vero altera tenet stivam, ne deliret, altera rallam;  et culter / dentale cum vomere, vuri / burae indito, proscindit sulcos, donec absolvatur iugerum. 
       But while ridging the land he holds the plough-stilt with one hand, lest he deviate from the balks, and the plough-staff with the other;  and the culter with the plough-share fastened into the plough-beam cut the furrows until the acre [R: the day's work] is completed.

Porca fit transversim ad derivandum uliginem. 
       A cross-water furrow is made transversely / crosswise to divert moisture.

Occam in argilloso solo ferreis stylis confixam esse oportet, in sabulosa / arenosa ligneis satis est.
       In clay soil a harrow should be fastened with iron tines;  in sandy soil it is sufficient [to fasten it] with wooden tines. 

Ubi segetes fruticescunt / fruticantur, periculum est ne tempestas calamitatem inferat.  ne vero zizaniis et nigellastro silvescat, aut ab aphace suffocetur, sarritione / runcatione opus est.
      As soon as the crops sprout / shoot up, there is a risk that a storm might damage them.  Weeding is required in case [the field] run wild with darnel and cockle, or be choked with tares.   

Cum messis adest, messores falce metunt, manipulatimque disponunt. 
     When it is time for the harvest the harvesters reap with a scythe / sickle and arrange [the harvest] in bundles.

Colligunt postmodum in mergites, quos colligant tomicibus, superante in campo stipula ac spicilegio.
         A little later they gather it into sheaves, which they bind with cords, the stubble and gleanings remaining in the open field.   

Tum vehibis in horrea convehunt , vel acervos congerunt. 
       Then they take it into the barns by cart loads, or pile it in hay-stacks.

Tritores in area flagello triturant et extundunt -- quondam tribulabant tribula -- linquuntur stramina et acera. 
      The threshers thresh and beat it out on the barn floor with a flail -- at one time they used to thresh it with a threshing cart.  The straw and the husks are left behind.

Exinde subiactant aliquantisper / aliquamdiu ventilabro ut separetur secernaturque palea.
       After that they winnow it for a while with a winnowing fan so that the chaff may be separated and sifted out.

Siquid sordium adhuc superest, cribro cernunt / cribrant ut repurgetur et fiat frumentum, quod granariis et cumeris infertur;  rutello, ne mucescat, corruitur;  et dimensum, radio aequatur.
        If there still remains any impurities, they sift [the grain] through a sieve that it may be cleaned and become finished grain, which is transferred to granaries and storing bins, heaped together with a shovel, so that it doesn't become mouldy, and when it has been measured, it is leveled / evened out with a strickle.

Agriculture:  from the Orbis Pictus
 Arator iungit boves aratro et, tenens laeva stivam, dextra rallam, qua amovet glebas, terram scindit vomere et dentali antea fimo stercoratam facitque sulcos. 
        The ploughman yokes oxen to the plough and, holding the plough-stilt with his left hand and the plough-staff with his right (with which he removes the clods), cuts the earth (manured beforehand with dung) with his plowshare and coulter, and makes furrows.

Tum seminat semen et inoccat occa
      Then he sows the seed and harrows it with a harrow.

Messor metit fruges maturas falce messoria, colligit manipulos et colligat mergetes
     The reaper mows the mature crops with a reapers sickle.   He gathers the bundles and binds the sheaves.

Tritor in area horrei triturat frumentum flagello / tribula, jactat ventilabro, atque, ita separata palea et stramine, congerit in saccos.
        The thresher threshes the grain on the barn floor with a flail, tosses it in a winnowing basket and, when the chaff and straw are thus separated, he collects it in sacks.

Faeniseca in prato facit faenum, desecans gramen falce faenaria, corraditque rastro, componit acervos furca, et convehit vehibus in faenile.   
      The hay-cutter makes hay in the meadow, cutting the grass with a scythe, and rakes it together with a rake, makes hay-stacks with a pitchfork, and takes it in carriages to the hayloft. 


To be ahead (i.e. in a game, to have the higher score or the advantage)  potior esse (Er)


To go/ come to someone’s aid:  ire opitulatum alicui  (AG)  subvenire alicui (T)


To aim (a weapon) at s.t./ s.o.:  (telum) intendere ad aliquid/ aliquem  (F)


Alert:  vigil, -is

Alert eyes:  oculi vigiles (Ap)


In all:  omnino
            There were five in all:  erant omnino quinque (Pl)

All-right:  salvus, -a, um (Pl)
     I will make it all-right:  rem salvam faciam. 

All right/ OK (in response to an imperative)  licet (Pl)

All-in-all:  omnia (T) 
     You are my all in all: omnia mea es.    

All-in-all:  topanta (P)
     She is his all-in-all:  illa est eius topanta 

The be-all and end-all of s.t.:  alicuius rei finisque extremumque (P)

For all I know:  unde scio an + subj.  (Ap)


To make/ enter into an alliance:  coire (F)
      The Gallic and Etruscan armies made and alliance:  Gallorum et Etruscorum exercitus coiverunt.


An allotment:  sortitio, -onis (AG)


To allow oneself to be....   se praestare + gerundive (F)
      He allowed himself to be surrounded:  se praestitit claudendum


Allowance:  demensum –i.  (T)


Almost:  propemodum (T)


An amateur:  sciolus, -I  (JB)   idiota –ae  (AG)


To be amazed:  obstupesco, -ere -ui  (T) consternari aliqua re (P)

Amazed at:  ictus, a, um + abl (AG)

Amazing:  permirus, -a, -um (Pl)   mirificissimus, -a, -um (T)

Amazing:  inopinatus, -a, -um (F)
       The Gauls were thrown into confusion by Marcellus' amazing audacity.  Galli inopinata Marcelli audacia peculsi sunt.


Ambiguous:  anceps  (Fr)  perplexabilis (Pl)
     An ambiguous word:  verbum perplexabile


To make amends for s.t:  aliquid sarcire (Er) 
      I shall make amends for all the harm I have done you:  omnes in te illatas iniurias sarciam.   


To run amok:  turbari (C)


Amuse oneself:  ludere (AG)


And how!  scin quam?  (T)

And yet:  atque adeo (Pl)   et tamen (C)

Anger/ Angry

Very angry, furious with someone:  alicui suscensere (T)

To get angry with someone:  suscensere alicui (T)

To make someone angry:  incendere aliquem (T)

To be angry with s.o. for s.t. succensere alicui aliquid (T)

To vent one’s rage on s.o. iram effundere alicui (T)

Don’t be so angry!  minue iram!  (T)

To puff out one’s cheeks in anger:  (iratus) buccas inflare (H)

To be seized with anger:  ira corripi (AG)


To make an announcement (that....)  adnuntiare (+ ind. st.) (F)


To annoy s.o.  incommodare alicui  (T)   odiosus esse alicui (Pl)

To be annoyed at s.t.  dolere de re aliqua (C)  aliquid animo iniquo ferre (T)

Annoying:  odiosus, a, um  (Pl)

Annoyingly:  odiose (T)
      Aeschines is annoyingly late:  Aeschines odiose cessat.

To be very annoying:  magno stomacho esse (Er)

An annoyance:  molestia, -ae (AG)


To give a nasty/ hurtful answer:  malitiosam dare pilam (Pl)

You're not answering my question:  aliud respondes ac rogo (T)


To anticipate:  praecipere,  praesentire/  praesagire (L)  antevertere (Pl) (Er)

To anticipate:  anticipare (S)

To anticipate s.o./ beat someone to something:  occupare (AG)
      I would have eaten that cookie, if you hadn't beaten me to it:  istud crustuli sumpsissem, nisi occupasses 


Antiquity:  vetustas, -atis (Er)

Anxiety, anxious, etc.

To cause s.o. anxiety:  obicere alicui sollicitudinem (AG)

Over-anxious:  satagius (Pl)

To relieve s.o.'s anxiety:  aliquem exonerare metu (T)


To resume a narrative:  quid multis moror?  (T)


Not anywhere:  non… uspiam (uspiam only used with negative) (AG)


Apart/ asunder:  seorsum


Aphrodisiac:  satyrium (P)


To apologize for s.t.:  se purgare alicuius rei (T)

To apologize to s.o.:  alicui satisfacere (F)


Apparently (as a response)/ so it seems:  ita quidem videtur (Er) 


To appeal to/ attract s.o.  arridere alicui  (Er)


To convey/ produce the appearance of...   praebere speciem + gen (F)


Appetizer:  promulsis -is  (P)  gustatio -onis (P)


To applaud s.o.”  alicui plaudere


To apply/ refer to:  competere (Er) 
     This reproach does not apply only to me:  hoc convicium non in me solum competit.   

To apply oneself particularly to s.t./   attend particulary to s.t.:  aliquid praevertere (Pl) 


Appointment:  constitutum  (P)

To show up for an appointment:  venire ad constitutum (P)


To appropriate s.o. else's propety:  rem alienam contrectare (Juristic Latin) 

To appropriate s.t.:  aliquid asciscere (Er)

It's appropriate that.....  aequum est + indir. statement (Pl)
      It's appropriate for a woman to hand out women's clothes, a man, men's:  mulierem aequum est vestimentum muliebre dare foras, virum virile.

At the appropriate moment:  in loco  (T)  (H)


To approve of s.t:  comprobare aliquid (Fr)


To have little aptitude for something:  alicuius rei inhabilem esse (F)

An apptitude for s.t.:  captus, -us alicuius rei (AG)


Arbitrarily:  licenter (AG)
     These words were used not arbitrarily, but by a solid grammatical rule:  istaec verba non licenter, sed ratione certa grammaticae dicta sunt.

Argue, argument, proof, etc.

To argue about s.t:  ambigere de aliqua re  (T)

They are arguing:  inter se discordant (T)

To introduce an argument/ proof:  argumentum afferre (C)

To prove s.t. indisputably:  aliquid argumentis confirmare (C)

To persist in an argument:  argumentum premere (C)

To refute an argument:  argumentum refellere (C)

Beyond all argument:  sine controversia (T)
     Beyond all argument you are the favorite of the gods:  sine controversia a dis solus diligeris.

To settle an argument (between other people):  ius inter litigantes dicere (P)


To be up in arms:   in armis esse (F)


To be aroused:  allibescere (Ap)


To arrange nicely:  concinnare (P)

To arrange that s.t. be done:   curare ut aliquid fiat (F)


A happy/ fortunate arrival:  pes felix (V)   pes secundus (V) 


Arrogant:  insolens  AG)


Scrawny-arsed:  depygis, -is


A sorry state of art:  lutea Minerva (Fr)


As for…  tum ad…. (AG)

As if:  tamquam si  + subj. (Pl)
     It's as if I'm lame, whenever I have to walk with a stick:  tamquam si claudus sim, cum fuste est ambulandum


To be thoroughly ashamed of oneself:  totus sibi displicere (T) 
            I am thoroughly ashamed of myself:  totus mihi displiceo


To draw s.o. aside:  seducere aliquem (S)

To call s.o. aside:  aliquem sevocare (Pl)

An aside:  aversiloquium (T)


To ask for s.t. back:  aliquid reptere (T) 

To ask s.o. (s.t.): aliquem aliquid percontari (AG)
    She asked her son what the fathers had discussed in the senate:  percontata est filium quidnam in senatu patres egissent.

If you ask me:  si me interrogas (S)
     If you ask me, he who has forced rather than deserved approval is the greater man:  si me interrogas, maior ille est, qui iudicium abstulit quam qui meruit.

Go and ask and you'll get it:  abi orator, redibis exorator (Er)


To be fast asleep:  sopitum esse (C)


To be a real ass:  asinus germanus esse (C)


To make a full-frontal assault on s.o:  insectari aliquem (Fr)


To come to s.o.'s assistance:  alicui suppetias ferre (Pl) 


As a term of abuse:  culus –i  (Pl, M)


to assert that:  praedicare + indirect statement  (Fr)

to assert that  affirmare + indirect statement (C)


An assignment (i.e. a particular task):  provincia (T)

A tough assignment provincia dura (T)
     You took a tough assignment:  duram cepisti provinciam.


With s.o.'s assistance:  comitate alicuius (Pl) 
      It was done with my assistance:  mea comitate factum est 


To associate with s.o.:  versari cum aliquo (S)

Associated with:   affinis, -is, -e + gen/ dat  (Er)
    If anyone is his friend, he will be associated with his craziness:  si quis amicus erit, eius insaniae affinis erit


Rest assured that….  id firmum et ratum habeto +  indirect statement (Fr)

Assurance:  securitas, -atis (AG) 
      He spoke with such assurance that he didn't seem to know that he was speaking:  tanta cum securitate loquebatur, ut videretur nescire se loqui.


An astrologer:  Chaldaeus (AG)


To be astounded:  obstupere (T)


To be emotionally attached to s.o.:  alicui devinctus -a -um esse  (H)


To attack s.o (with violent actions):  aliquem incursare (Pl)

To carry out a clever plan of attack:  satis astute aggredi (T)

An attack of disease:  impetus morbi (P)


To attain to s.t.:  aliquid adipisci  (AG)


To attend to s.t.:  aliquid curare (Cic)


Attention!:  audi/ auidite (Pl)   sis attentus (Er)

To pay attention to s.t.:  alicui rei operam dare (Pl) (T)  alicui rei attentus esse (Er)


Attitude:  animus (T)
            What these things are depends on the attitude of the man who possesses them:  haec perinde sunt ut illius animus qui ea possidet

Attitude:  mens, -tis (T)  

His attitude is such that….  ille ita habitus est ut…. (T)

Attract, attractive, etc.

To attract:  adducere (Fr)

Attractive:  commodus, a, um  (T)
            She is an attractive and witty woman:  illa est commoda et faceta mulier

To be (sexually) attractive to s.o:  placere alicui (S, Ov)


To attribute s.t. to s.o.:  opponere aliquid alicui (Fr)


Loss by attrition:  intertrimentum (T)  This also means “expense”.


Auspiciously:  dextro pede (J) 


Authority:  imperium (Pl)
     Are you spurning my authority?  meumne imperium contemnis?

To have authority over s.o.:  habere imperium in aliquem (Pl)

On good authority:  comperte (AG)


Autocratic:  indomitus, -a, -um (AG)


Automoatically:  statim  (Er)
            The person who gives the order is non automatically the better person:  non statim melior est, qui imperat.


To avail oneself of s.t.:  uti aliqua re  (Er)


To be available:  expeditus esse /  praesto esse (H)  patere (Cs)

To be available for:  expeditus esse ad….

To be available to do s.t.:  expeditus esse ad aliquid faciendum

To be available (to s.o.):  suppetere (alicui) (Pl)
      Money is available to you:  pecunia tibi suppetit


To avenge s.t./ s.o.:  ulcisci aliquid/ aliquem (F)
     Coriolanus avenged the disgrace of his condemnation by making war:  Coriolanus ignominiam damnationis suae bello ultus est.


To be awake:  vigilare 

To stay awake until....  vigilare usque ad / in   (P)


You are well aware:  non/haud te clam est (T)

To make s.o. aware/ to inform s.o.:  facere aliquem scientem (T)

To be aware of s.t.:  aliquid sentire (T)
      He is the first to be aware of our troubles:  primus sentit mala nostra


To stay away from s.o./ s.t:  se abstinere + ablative (VM)

Get away with s.t.:  aliquid inultum auferre (T), or simply aliquid auferre (T)
            He’ll never get away with it:  inultum numquam id auferet

To shoo something away:  aliquid abigere (Pl) (C) (Er)
       He shooed the flies away with a whisk:  muscas scopulo abegit.     

Get away!  apage te! (Ap)


To be in awe of s.o.:  revereri aliquem (Pl)


Awfully well:  horribiliter (Fr)
            You wrote awfully well:  horribiliter scripsisti.



To babble:  deblaterare (AG)  argutare (P)

A babbler:  locutuleius, -i (AG)


Behind s.o.'s back:  clam aliquem (Pl)

Ask for something back:  aliquid repetere (T)

To come back with s.t.:  aliquid referre (Er)
     Are you coming back with a lot of booty:  multumne manubiarum refers?  

Back up, support

To back up s.o.’s story:  alicuius orationi subservire (T)


To backbite s.o.:  aliquem rodere (H)


To throw s.o. backward:  aliquem resupinare (P)


To be “not bad” (i.e., lukewarm praise):  satis scitus, -a, -um esse (T)
            She’s not bad:  satis scita est  (But note, satis can also mean "quite", so satis scita est can also mean "She's quite cute."  Perhaps the distinction in meaning was made by context or tone of voice)

Bad side:  mores inversi
Showing one's bad side:  moribus inversis (H)

To do a bad job of .s.t.:  aliquid nequiter facere (Pl)

Badly:  badly/ sadly small/ puny:  male parvus (H)

To go bad (i.e. to deteriorate morally):  delinquere (Pl) (T) /  peccare (S)

Too bad!  male!  (P)


To baffle s.o.:  tenebras offundere alicui (Er)


"Baggage", i.e. psychological baggage:  To free oneself of one's psychological baggage:  se exonerare sarcina (sua):   (Er)


To pay bail:  dare vades (H)


To attract s.o./ s.t. with bait:  aliquem/ aliquid inescare (T) 


To balance oneself on s.t.:  niti aliqua re (C)


Bald spot:  calvitium


To serve a ball:  pilam mittere (Er)


To have no balls:  intestatus esse (Pl)

To be ballsy:  audax esse (H)

To have balls (i.e. to be a "real man"):  coleos habere (P)  

A man with balls:  coleus, -i (P)


To bamboozle s.o.:  alicui verba dare (Pl)


Piggy bank:  arca, -ae (H)


To go bankrupt:  conturbare (without direct object, or with rationes as direct obj) (C) (P)


Banter:  scommata, -um (Er)


Barbarous in speech:  opicus dictis (AG)


(Com. ILR 53)

Tonsor crines forfice tondet.  olim volsella vellebat, ut et ovium / bidentium vellera. vel abradit et deglabrat novaculae acie.
       A barber cuts hair with scissors.  At one time he plucked it out with tweezers (as also the wool of sheep).  Or he shaves it off and makes [the head / face] smooth with the sharp edge of a razor.

Coma / caesaries, quas Germani alunt, Poloni capronas, pectine pectitur.    (effeminati nonnuli cincinnos calamistro, si dis placet, crispant, et calvi, proh pudor, comam asciticiam, futile capillamentum adaptant.  digni sane, qui cycladas cum syrmate tractim gestent, et muliebrem habitum per omnia aemulentur). 
        Hair, which the Germans grow long (and) the Poles [grow] into forelocks/ bangs, is combed with a comb.  Some effeminate men curl their locks (indeed!) with a curling iron, and bald men (for shame!) fasten on themselves false hair, a pointless wig.  They are fit to wear long robes with a train dragging behind, and to vie with women's fashions in everything.

Tonstrina -- The Barber Shop (from Orbis Pictus)

Tonsor in tonstrina tondet crines et barbam forcipe, vel radit novacula, quam depromit e theca.
       A barber in a barber-shop cuts the hair and beard with scissors, and shaves with a razor, which he takes out of a case.

Et lavat super pelvim, lixivio deflutente e gutturnio, ut et sapone, et tergit linteo.   pectit pectine, crispat calamistro.
       He also washes [the hair] over a basin, the soapy water (?) running out of a laver, as also with soap, and wipes it with a towel.   He combs it with a comb and curls it with a curling iron/ curler.

Interdum secat venam scalpello, ubi sanguis propullulat.
       From time to time he cuts a vein with a scalpel, where the blood spurts out.


Barefoot:  excalceatus, -a, -um (S) 


To bargain / strike a bargain with s.o.:  cum aliquo pacisci  (Er) 


To be based on s.t.:  niti aliqua re (Fr)
            The charges on which the case is based:  crimina, quibus causa nititur


You bastard!  Scelus!  (T)

You filthy bastard!  Impurissime!  (T)


De Balneo et Munditie (Com. ILR 53)
      On the bath and cleanliness

Limpida faciem saepius abluere munditiei est;  fuco fucare (vel purpurissa oblinere) spurcitiei.
     To wash the face fairly often with clear water is cleanliness;  to doll it up with make-up or to smear it with rouge is nasty.

(Apage pulchritudinem ficticiam, ementitam, adventitiam et lenocinio ascitam).  
       To hell with an artificial, sham, extraneous and meretriciously appropriated beauty.

In thermis artus torpidi foventur calida vel tepida.  lavacra et balneae sordes atque illuvies eluunt;  omnem paedorem, sudorem et squalorem abstergunt et defricant. 
        Stiff joints are warmed in a bath house with hot or warm water. Baths and bathing places wash away dirt and filth.  They wipe and scrub away all dirt / stench, sweat and filth. 

Ubi tamen honestatis ergo subligacula / subligaria et castulae locum habent. 
       In those places, however, loin cloths and aprons have their use for the sake of decency. 

Sed vestimenta immunda / sordida lavantur in labro a lotrice, et lixivio ac sapone / smegmate mundantur.   aut everruntur saetaceo pectine, aut exterguntur spongia.  collaria roborantur amylo. 
        But soiled / dirty clothes are washed in a tub by a laundress and cleaned with lye and soap,  or they are  brushed with a bristly comb / brush, or rubbed with a sponge.  Collars are stiffened with starch.

Cilicio, topho ac pumice nosmet ipsi fricamur.  vascula stramento, vel eqiseto, vel echino stringuntur.  quisquiliae et analecta scopis verruntur.
         We ourselves are scrubbed with a wash cloth, tufa and pumice.  Small pots-and-pans are brushed with straw, or a horsetail [i.e. the plant], or a stiff brush.   Rubbish and scraps are swept up with a broom. 

Ubi putei iuges desiderantur / desunt, e quibus, crepidine circumdatis, tollenone et haustro vel situla haurias,  aquaeductus per tubos / siphones / siphunculas et canales, aut per incilia fieri convenit.
       Where reliable wells are not available, out of which, being fenced with a brandrith, you may draw water with a swing-beam / derrick / lever and a dipper or a bucket, it is appropriate that water ducts be provided through pipes / conduits, channels or through gutters. 

Unctiones, suffimenta / suffitus, pastilli, diapasmata, odoramenta, aspersiones ex ampullis, sunt (mollium homuncionum) et voluptuariorum, quibus delibuti, fragrant.
      Ointments, perfumes, breath-mints, scented powders, fragrances, sprays from bottles, bedaubed with which they smell sweet, are the concern of namby-pamby homunculi and men addicted to pleasure. 

Balneum -- The Bath (from the Orbis Pictus)

Qui cupit lavari aqua frigida descendit in fluvium.  In balneario abluimus squalores, sive sedentes in labro, sive conscendentes in sudatorium, et defricamur pumice aut cilicio. 
         Whoever wishes to bathe in cold water goes down into a river.  In a bath-house we wash off the dirt, either sitting in a tub or going up into the steam room, and we are rubbed with pumice stone or a wash cloth.

In apodyterio exuimus vestes et praecingimur castula / subligari.  tegimus caput pileolo et imponimus pedes telluvio.
       We take off our clothes in a change-room and we put on an apron / loin cloth.  We cover our head with a cap and put our feet in a basin.

Balneatrix ministrat aquam situla, haustam ex alveo, in quem defluit e canalibus.  balneator scarificat scalpro et applicando cucurbitas extrahit sanguinem subcutaneum, quem abstergit spongia.
        The bath-woman supplies water from a bucket, drawn out of a trough/ sink, into which it runs from pipes.  The bath-keeper lances [the arm] with a lancet / scalpel, and by applying cupping-glasses he draws the blood between the skin and the flesh, which he wipes away with a sponge. 


Bathroom (ie. the place where the toilet or the urinal is):  secessus, -us


To engage in battle/ enter into battle:  aciem committere (F)


To bear with s.o.:  ferre aliquem (T)
            Whom will he bear with if he will not bear with his parent?  Quem ferret si parentem non ferret?

Bear with me:  fer me (T)

To be unable to bear/ stand to do something:  non sustinere aliquid facere (Fr)


Beastly / bestial:  obscenus -a -um (L) (V)


To beat around the bush:  circumire

Not to beat around the bush:  nil circumitione uti (T)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem concidere -cidi -cisum (Jv)

To beat s.o. up/ pound s.o. out:  aliquem obtundere (Pl)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem mulcare (T)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem percolopare (P)

To beat s.o. to death:  aliquem mulcare usque ad mortem (T)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem verberare (T)

To "beat" s.o. to s.t.:  occupare (AG)
     I would have eaten that cookie, if you hadn;t beaten me to it:  istud crustuli sumpsissem, nisi occupasses. 

To beat s.o. at a game:  aliquem ludo vincere (Er)


To be morally beautiful:  praeclarus esse

It's a beauty:  lepidum est (Pl)

Of remarkable beauty:  specie insignis (F)


What will become of me?  Quid me fiet?  (Fr)


Make the bed:  concinnare lectum (Fr)


De Cubiculo (Com. ILR. 52)
     Of the Bedroom

In dormitorio sponda et fulera / fulmenta / clinopodia cubile sustinent.  sed deficiente lecto, storea substernitur aut matta (aut, urgente necessitate, stramentum). 
       In the place where one sleeps a bedframe and legs support the bedding.   But where there is no bed, a mattress or mat is laid out (or, in an emergency, a straw pad).

Strato superiniicitur lodix et peristroma, et huic cervical.  tegetibus et stragulis nos integimus.           
      A sheet and blanket are thrown over the bed, and over this a bolster.  We cover ourselves with covers and blankets.

Pulvinar plumeus est, culcita tomento farcta.  pulvillis insidemus.
      A pillow has feathers, a cushion is stuffed with stuffing.  We sit on cushions. 

Matula vesicae levandae et secessus / latrina vel scuplium [?] alvo exonerandae cubiculo necessaria requisita sunt. 
       A bed pan/ chamber pot for relieving the bladder and a privy / toilet for easing the stomach are necessary requisites for a bedroom.

Grabbatus cum conopeis pro meridiana reclinatione est.                  
      A couch with draperies / curtains is for a siesta.

Qui supinus cubat, incubo / ephialte molestatur.  qui pronus dormit, anhelitu.           
      A person who lies on his back is troubled with nightmares / "the hag" ;  a person who sleeps face down, with breathing-difficulties.

Si edormisti et evigilas, vigila ne obdormias rursum, experrectusque prima luce, admodum diliculo alios fortiter inclama, expergefeceris.            
       If you have slept enough and you are awake, watch that you do not fall asleep again, and having awakened at first light, give a loud shout to the others just at day-break until you wake them up.

Hiberno / hiemali / brumali tempore antelucana diligentia probatur (etiam ante gallicinium).
     Pre-dawn work is approved of in winter, even before cock-crow. 


I beg you!:  oro obscecro! (Pl)


To begin s.t.  facere initium alicuius rei (T)

To begin with s.t.:  ab aliqua re incipereab aliqua re auspicari (Er)
      Let's begin with what is simplest:  auspicemur ab eo quod est simplisissimum.


The beginning of my troubles:  mihi principium mali (T)

From the beginning of the world:  post homines natos (Fr)


To begrudge something:  aliquid gravare (Pl)


To behave arrogantly:  se praebere superbum (C)

To behave unfairly:  se inique gerere (S)

To behave bravely:  fortiter facere (S)

Behaviour:  mores (C)  facta (T)


To behead s.o:  aliquem securi percutere (F)


Behind/ from behind:  pone (T)
     He tugged my coat from behind:  pone reprendit pallium.

From behind:  a tergo (F)

Belaboured/ overdone

Belaboured:  anxius (Fr)
            A belaboured speech:  oratio anxia


To bellow:  mugire


To bestow benefits on s.o.:  commoditatibus aliquem afficere (Er)

To reap a benefit:  decerpere fructum


To be beside oneself:  amens esse (Pl)

Besides:  praeterea (T)


To beslobber s.o. with kisses:  aliquem basiis conspuere (P)


To besmirch s.o. with s.t.:  inquinare aliquem aliqua re (P)

To besmirch s.o. with kisses:  aliquem basiis conspuere (P)


I'm doing my best:  fit sedulo (Pl)

I’ll do my best:  fiet sedulo (T)/  faciam sedulo (T)
       I'll do my best to advise them with such wisdom as I have:  sedulo moneo quae possum pro mea sententia.  


It’s better to….  Satius est + infinitive

It’s better than to….  Satius est quam + indirect statement (T)

It's better than.....  praestare .... quam  (Er)
      It's better to have something left over than not enough:  praestat aliquid superesse, quam deesse.

Things are starting to get better:  incipit res melius ire (C)

I feel better:  commodius me habeo (Fr)

There’s something else we had better be doing:  aliud est quod potius faceremus (T)

To had better:  melius esse + indirect statement (Pl)
     You'd better wake up:  melius est te expergisci


Between you and me (in imparting a secret):  quod intra nos sit, followed by indicative (S)


A biased argument:  iniqua oratio (T)


A big fish in a little pond:  gallus in suo sterquilino (S)

Bill/ invoice

Bill/ invoice/ statement of costs:  ratio


A bird house (or coup):  ornitho, -onis (Varro, ap. AG)


From birth/ since the day I was born:  postquam natus sum (Pl)


Bit by bit:  unciatim (T)


Bitch:  lupatria (P)   oblatratrix (AG)

To bitch-slap s.o.  depalmare aliquem (AG)


A bitter feeling:  armarulentia –ae  (Er)


To blab:  effutire (H)

Blabbermouth:   intimator (HA)


To blame s.o.:  in aliquem culpam conferre (Er)
To lay all the blame on s.o:  omnem culpam in aliquem imponere (T)


The blast of trumpets:  tubarum bombi (Er)


A blessing:  res bona (AG)
      Crassus is said to have had five of the greatest and most distinguished blessings:  Crassus traditur habuisse quinque rerum bonarum maxima et praecipua.


To turn a blind eye to s.t.:  aliquid praetermittere (T) 


To block s.o. (from doing s.t.):  se alicui opponere (quominus + subj) (F).


To be full-blooded:  boni sanguinis esse (S)


Blow away (as by an explosion)  tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum (Er)

To drive home a blow:  ictum perferre (V)


Out of the blue:  improviso (T) 

Blurt out

To blurt s.t. out:  aliquid effutire (T)


Without blushing/ unembarrassed:  salva fronte (Er)


To board ship:  navem conscendere (P)


Empty boasts:  gloriae inanes (AG)

Boasting:  magniloquentia, -ae (AG)

To boast / show off:  caudam iactare (Pr)


De Corpore, et primum de Membris Externis  (Com ILR. 21)
     Of the [human] body, and first, of the external parts.

Corporis nostri compages ex ossibus cum medulla, cartilaginibus, tendinibus, nervis, carne, musculis (ea carnis pulpa qua utimur ut organomotus spontanei pro arbitrio), cute triplici, et membranis seu involucris variis coagmentata est.  
       The structure of our body is joined together out of bones with marrow, cartilages [ / gristle], tendons, sinews, flesh, muscles (that flesh of the flesh which we use at our discretion for voluntary motion), a threefold skin, and various membranes, or envelopes.

Membra cohaerent arctis et perpetuis nexibus, in proportione decentissima.
       The parts are held together by close and continuous connection in a very handsome symmetry.

Nam quae bina sunt, ex opposito sibi ad latera locantur;  quae singula, per medium.
     For [the parts] that come in pairs are placed at the sides opposite one another;   [the parts] that are single, down the middle.

In vultuum lineamentis stupenda est varietas.
      There is an extraordinary variety in the features of faces.

Frons angusta, suilla est;  gibbosa, asina;  lata, bonae indolis et qualitatis;  rugosa, animi anxii;  caperata, iracundia nota;   erugata et exporrecta, effrontem arguit vel hilarem. 
     A narrow forehead is like a pig's;   one bulging, like an ass's.  A wide [forehead] is the sign of good nature and quality;  a wrinkled forehead, of an anxious disposition;  a knitted brow, the mark of an angry person;  a wrinkle-free, smoothed-out brow is evidence of an impudent or a cheerful person.

Pupilla oculi albugini insidens et inhaerens speculum est, obiectarum rerum imagines / idola in se recipiens.
      The pupil of the eye, sitting in and adhering to the white, is a mirror, receiving into itself the reflections / images of things presented to it.

Hanc palpebrae nictando humectant.  supercilia vero et cilia communiunt.
       The eyelids moisten it by blinking,  But the eyebrow and eyelashes protect it.

Sed hirci / canthi lachrimas sudant.  
     But the tear ducts ooze tears.

Tota dentium series infigitur in alveolos in utraque maxilla perfossos.
      The whole series of teeth is fastened into sockets recessed into both jaws.

Inter tempora et nasum, quem alii simum, alii resimum, alii aduncum habent  (et cuius globulus extat prominentior in homine quam in ceteris), , interiectae sunt genae sive malae, iisque subsunt maxillae.
       Between the temples and the nose, which some have flat, some turned up, some hooked  (and the tip of which sticks further out in a human than in the rest of animals), are placed the cheeks, and under them the jaw.

Per nares, ut cloacam, demanat mucus, quem vibrissae detinent, ne exsudet, nisi mucinio /strophiolo  mungatur.
      Through the nostrils, as through a drain, flows mucus, which the nose hairs hold back, lest it drip out, unless [the nose] is blown into a handkerchief.

Mentum virile primum lanugine, deinde barba tegitur;  labrum superiorius mystace.  quidam imberbes sunt; quidam barbatuli.  In eius medio nympha, subter buccula.
      A man's chin is at first covered in down, then a beard;  the upper lip, with a mustache. Some are beardless, others have sparse / beginners' beards.  In the middle of the chin is a dimple, beneath, a double chin.

Anterior pars colli iugulum est;  posterior cervix.  cavum est in imo collo, supra sternon et claviculos, ubi porcum jugulant.  
      The front part of the neck is the throat;  the back part is the nape.  There is a hollow at the bottom of the throat, above the sternum and collar bone, where they stick a pig.

Thorax sororiantibus mammis / mammulis (quarum eminent papillae), turgidus.  inferne ventrem habet et ad partes latera.
      The torso is [in the case of women] bulging with heaving breasts (the nipples of which stick out).   Below it has a belly and sides to the sides.

Costae duodecim ab axilla coeptae in hypochondria desinunt.
     The twelve ribs, beginning at the arm-pit, end at the abdomem.

In inguine, sub pube / pectine sunt pudenda / verenda.
      In the groin, under the pubis/ pubic hair are the privates / the modesty.

Infra ilia et coxas / coxendices femora sunt, sub poplite sura, sub genibus tibia et antetibiale.  illius os extremum in malleolum interiorem protuberat, huius in exteriorem. 
      Beneath the flanks and the hips / haunches are the thighs, under the ham is the calf, under the knees are the tibia and the fibula.  The end of  the former bulges out into an interior ankle, the end of the latter into an exterior ankle.

A suffragine planta pedis est, talos / malleolos, calcem, calcaneum, quo calcamus, tharsum (partem superiorem calci in adverso oppositum), plantae convexum / dorsum  solum / imam plantam, cumque digitis hallucem continens.
        Below the pastern bone [lower tibia?] is the foot-breadth, comprehending the ankles/ little hammers,  the heal,  heal bone, by which we stamp the foot [/ trample / walk all over ], the tharsum (the upper part of the foot opposed to the sole), the instep/ ridge/ the lower sole [ball?] and, with the little toes, the big toe.  [this description of the foot seems a bit confused].

Tergum superne habet scapulas.  post lumbos subsequentur nates, sessionis gratia clunibus circumvolutas.
       The back has shoulder blades in the upper part.  After the loins come the arse wrapped around with buttocks for the purpose of sitting.

Spina dorsi totius structurae / fabricae fultura est, ut erecti stare possimus.  constituitur autem e triginta quattuor vertebris contiguis (quarum amplissima, os sacrum, reliquas suffulcit), ut incurvari et inclinari queamus,  quod non fieret si os continuum esset.
     The spine of the back is the prop of the whole structure / frame, that we might stand upright.  it is made up of thirty four vertebrae (of which the largest, the os sacrum, supports the rest), closely joined together  so that we can bend and lean, which would not be possible if the bone were uninterrupted / all of one piece.

Manus -- largiore sensu comprehendit totum artum ab omoplata ad extremos digitos -- in se continet lacertosum / torosum bracchium, cubitum, ulnam, carpum, volam, quae diducta palma est, contracta pugnus.  illa alapam impingit / incutit, hic colaphum infringit.  dorsum manus / manus aversa non aeque occallescit ac palma.
       The hand -- in the broader sense it includes the whole limb from the omoplata to the finger tips -- includes a muscular / brawny forearm, the elbow, ell [ie the hollow opposite the elbow], the wrist, the hollow of the hand [ie, the cupped palm], which when spread is the palm, and contracted the fist. The former gives a slap, the latter deals a punch.  The back of the hand does not become equally calloused as the palm.

Digiti sunt quinque, singuli articulos tres, et totidem artuum iuncturas, condylos, habentes.
     There are five fingers, each having three phalanges and the same number of  finger junctures, or knuckles.

Pollice premimus, indice demonstramus.  verpus / medius prominet, inter quem et minimum seu auricularem -- est enim loco auriscalpii -- (digitellum, amatorem) interiacet / interponitur anularis.  
     We press with our thumb, we point out with our index finger.  The verpus or middle finger sticks out.  Between it and the smallest finger, or poking finger -- for it serves in place of an ear cleaner -- (the little finger, the lover) there lies/ is located the ring finger.

Unguibus scabimus, scalpimus, laceramus, lancinamus.
     With our nails we scratch, claw, tear, rip.

Sinistra / laeva tenet, dextra operatur omnia apte nisi quis ipse ineptus et iners.
     The left hand holds, the right hand carries out all the work fitly, unless some [operator] is himself inept and clumsy.

De Corporis Accidentibus (Com ILR.23)
      On Body-characteristics.

Iuxta exteriorem aspectum quidam videntur corpulenti, obesi, quadrati, alii graciles, exiles, macilenti,  et strigosi;  quidam formosi, alii deformes. 
      When it comes to external appearance, some look stout, fat, well-built [/robust], others are slender, thin, lean, skinny.

Secundum habitudinem interiorem vegeti aut morbosi;  robusti aut teneri.
       Regarding internal constitution, they are either healthy / vigorous or sickly;  strong or delicate.

Crispi facile calvescunt, rufi canunt.
      The curly-haired go bald easily.  Red-heads/ gingers go grey.

Cilones in phrenesin / phrenitida proclives sunt, et includuntur vacerrae.  
      People with bulging foreheads are inclined to madness, and are confined in a cage / an asylum [so Robothom's 17-c translation.  In classical Latin vacerra, -ae simply means a stock of wood].

Praestat / satius est luscum esse aut lippum quam caecum, surdastrum quam surdum, haesitantem quam balbum / balbutientem, blaesum quam mutum.  
      It is better / preferable to be squinty-eyed or weak-visioned (purblind) than blind;  hard-of-hearing than stone-deaf;  slow / halting of speech than stammering / stuttering, lisping than to be mute.

Strabo distorte, paetus oblique contuetur.  cocles monoculus est, lumine altero orbus / orbatus.  lusciosus caligat interdiu. myops non cernit nisi prope admota.  exophthalmus habet oculos prominentes, celophthalmus reductos orbes.
       A person with a strabismus [/cross-eyed] looks distortedly,  a squinter looks indirectly.  A person blind in one eye is one-eyed, being deprived of vision in the other.   A squinty-eyed person is weak-sighted during the day.  A near-sighted person cannot make things out unless they are brought close.  A bug-eyed person has eyes that stick out, a sunken-eyed person has recessed eyes.

Nasuti / nasones acriter odorari;  buccones et ventriculosi [ / ventriosi ] manducones / ingluviosi/ glutones;  capitones, labeones;  flacci, bronci brochi / brocchi / brocci] et iugulis non cavis, bardi / blitei / bruti esse putantur.
       People with big noses are supposed to have keen smell;  fat-cheeked and pot-bellied people, to be gluttons;  big-headed people [hydrocephalics?], blubber-lipped people, people with huge ears, buck-teeth and unhollow throats [?], [are supposed to be] dull-witted / foolish / stupid..

Reduvia, verruca, struma, scrophulae, polypus, gibbus / gibber, et quodvis tuber deformant.
     A hangnail, a wart, a cyst, swollen neck-glands, nasal polyps, a hump, or any knob-like swelling disfigures.

Similiter et naevi, lentigo, vitiligo, porrigo, impetigo / lichen, mentagra / mentigo, varix, lepra, et omnis macula.  
       Similarly with a mole, a spot / freckle, vitiligo, dandruff, psoriasis / eczema, scabbiness, a varicose vein, a leprous lesion, and every blemish.

Item siquis obstipus incedat aut cernuus.
      Likewise if someone walks with a limp or a stoop.

Calvitium alii sibi decori reputant, alii dedecori.  
      Some think that baldness becomes them, others that it is a blemish.

Claudicatio a luxatione est;  alioqui nec loripedes, nec balgi, nec vari, ne scauri, nec pansae, nec compernes/ plauti/ planci claudicant.
       A lame, halting gate is from a dislocation;  otherwise neither club-footed persons, nor the bow-legged, nor the swollen-ankled, nor the knock-kneed, nor the splay-footed, nor the flat-footed are lame.

Interrigo ab attritu est.
      Inerrigo [? R: "galling"] is from a rubbing off of the skin.

Spado est, cui testiculi / colei ablati sunt.
     A eunuch is someone whose testicles have been removed.


To be bold / unashamed:  perfrictae frontis esse (Er)

To put on a bold face:  os / faciem / frontem perficare (Er)


Bombastic style:  inflatum orationis genus (C)

To be bombastic:  turgere (H)


Booty:  manubiae -arum (Suet) 


A bore:  homo molestus (P)

Boring:  frigidus -a, -um (Jv) (Er)  putidiusculus, -a, -um

To be thoroughly bored:  pertaesus esse (AG)

To be boring:  frigeo, -ere (AG)
      How dull and boring Caecilius seemed  quantum stupere atque frigere Caecilius visus est.

To become boring:  refrigerari 

To be bored to death:  odio enicari (Pl)


A born orator:  natus ad dicendum (C)

Born to endure misery:  natus esse ferendis miseriis (T)

Born and bred:  natus altus educatus (Pl)
      I was born, bred and reared in Athens:  natus altus educatus sum Athenis.


Boss:  erus, -i;  era, -ae (Pl, T) 


To bother s.o.:  odiosus esse alicui (Pl)  /   molestus esse alicui (Pl)

To bother s.o.:  aliquem movere (P)
       The loss doesn't bother me so much as the carelessness of a good-for-nothing slave:  Non tam iactura me movet, quam neglegentia nequissimi servi.


To go to the bottom (i.e. to sink):   pessum (ab)ire (Pl)

To go to the bottom of the sea:  pessum (ab)ire in altum (Pl)

Bottom-feeder/ scum:  sentina, -ae (C) 


To overstep the bounds of s.t:  modum alicuius rei egredi (Fr)


Good boy!  lepidum caput! (Er)

A lover-boy:  amasiunculus, -i (P)


To be branded as...:  habere stigma + genit. (P)

To brand:  denotare (Ap)


To brandish a weapon:  telum vibrare (F)

Brass knuckles

Brass knuckles:  caestus, -us (ie. a pugilists’ glove, reinforced with brass studs)


To behave bravely:  fortiter facere (S)


Bravo!  Sophos! (P)   eu! (Pl)


Brazen confidens, -ntis (Er)

Brazenly:  cum confidentia (Er)


To break (a bone):  (ossum)  praefringere (T) 

To break up (into groups)  segregari (in turmas/ cohortes etc) (F)

To give s.o. a "break":  alicui missionem dare (P_

Breath/ breathe

To run out of breath:  spiritum insumere (Fr)

Out of breath:  anhelans  -ntis  (F)

To hold one’s breath:  spiritum retinere (Fr)   animam comprimere (T)

To breathe a word of s.t.  muttire aliquid (Pl)

To catch one's breath:  animam recipere (T)


Ill-bred:  illiberalis, -is, -e (Er)


To bribe s.o.:  corrumpere aliquem (F)


Brilliance:  lux, lucis (AG)
      Cato spoke with a great deal of charm, brilliance and elegance of diction:  M. Cato oratione usus est multa quidem venustate atque luce atque munditia verborum.


Night brings:  nox fert (Fr)
            We shall see what the night brings:  nox quid ferat cognoscemus

To bring someone (somewhere)  aliquem adducere ad.... (Pl)

To bring something (somewhere) aliquid afferre ad.... (Pl)

To bring oneself to do s.t:  animum inducere aliquid facere (H)

To bring s.t. to the point of s.t.:  aliquid perducere ad aliquid (S)

To bring back:  referre (S)

To bring s.t. upon oneself:  aliquid sibi contrahere  (Ap)


Brothel:  fornix, -icis (H)  lupanar -is


To bear the brunt:  maximam partem ferre (T) 


Brutishness/ bullying behaviour:  importunitas, -atis (Pl)


A young buck:  arietillus, -i (P)


Buddy (s.o. one hangs out with):  congerro –onis (Er)


Buffoon:  balatro, -onis (H)


Bulging:  distentus, -a, -um (Er)

Bull/ b.s./ humbug

b.s!  fallaciae! (Pl)


A bully:  vir importunus (T)

To bully s.o:  importunus esse alicui (T)


To bump/run into s.o. (ie. to meet unexpectedly):  aliquem incursare (Pl)  in aliquem incurrere (C)  in aliquem incidere (C)

To bump into s.o./ s.t. (i.e. to meet, meet with unexpectedly)  offendere aliquem/ aliquid (T, C.)
      I bumped into him on the street:  eum in platea offendi.

To bump into/ fall in with s.o. / s.t. (to meet with unexpectedly):  in aliquid/ in aliquem incidere (Cs)
     Some cohorts bumped into Caesar's battle line:  nonnullae cohortes in Caesaris agmen inciderunt.


Burst in on s.o.:  intervenire alicui (T)

To burst forth:  erumpere (F)


To "bury" oneself in s.t.:  se immergere in aliqua re (Pl)
      I buried myself in the midst of a public meeting:  in contionem mediam me immersi.


To beat around the bush:  schemas loqui (P)


Bushel:  modius, -i

To measure s.t. by the bushel:  aliquid modio metiri (P)

Business/ busy

To mind ones own business:  suum negotium agere (T)

I make it my business to….  Id ago ut…. (T)

To do business:  negotium gerere (Pl)  aliquid rei seriae agere (F)

To run a business:  negotiationem exercere (P)

To keep oneself busy (with something):  se exercere (aliqua re)  (T)

To be busy:  satago, -ere, sategi

To have one’s hands full of s.t.:  satagitare alicuius rei (AG)

To have business with s.o:  alicui esse res cum aliquo  (Pl)
     I have business with him:  mihi est res cum eo

To make/keep s.o. busy with s.t.:  aliquem occupare aliqua re (Pl)

To close down a business:  claudere tabernam (H)


A busy body:  curiosus, i / curiosa, -ae (Er)


Bustle:  tumultus (T) (S)


But if:  quodsi

Butt/ rump/backside/ arse

Butt:  puga, -ae (H)  as a part-for-the-whole for the entire body (H. Sat.1.2)

Butter up

To butter s.o. up:  subpalpari  aliquem (Pl)/  subblandiri alicui (Pl)


To buy with cash:  fide Graeca mercari (Pl)

By all means / by no means

By no means:  neutiquam  (T)  nequaquam

By all means:  maxime (Pl)