Monday, 24 October 2011



To babble:  deblaterare (AG)  argutare (P)

A babbler:  locutuleius, -i (AG)


Behind s.o.'s back:  clam aliquem (Pl)

Ask for something back:  aliquid repetere (T)

To come back with s.t.:  aliquid referre (Er)
     Are you coming back with a lot of booty:  multumne manubiarum refers?  

Back up, support

To back up s.o.’s story:  alicuius orationi subservire (T)


To backbite s.o.:  aliquem rodere (H)


To throw s.o. backward:  aliquem resupinare (P)


To be “not bad” (i.e., lukewarm praise):  satis scitus, -a, -um esse (T)
            She’s not bad:  satis scita est  (But note, satis can also mean "quite", so satis scita est can also mean "She's quite cute."  Perhaps the distinction in meaning was made by context or tone of voice)

Bad side:  mores inversi
Showing one's bad side:  moribus inversis (H)

To do a bad job of .s.t.:  aliquid nequiter facere (Pl)

Badly:  badly/ sadly small/ puny:  male parvus (H)

To go bad (i.e. to deteriorate morally):  delinquere (Pl) (T) /  peccare (S)

Too bad!  male!  (P)


To baffle s.o.:  tenebras offundere alicui (Er)


"Baggage", i.e. psychological baggage:  To free oneself of one's psychological baggage:  se exonerare sarcina (sua):   (Er)


To pay bail:  dare vades (H)


To attract s.o./ s.t. with bait:  aliquem/ aliquid inescare (T) 


To balance oneself on s.t.:  niti aliqua re (C)


Bald spot:  calvitium


To serve a ball:  pilam mittere (Er)


To have no balls:  intestatus esse (Pl)

To be ballsy:  audax esse (H)

To have balls (i.e. to be a "real man"):  coleos habere (P)  

A man with balls:  coleus, -i (P)


To bamboozle s.o.:  alicui verba dare (Pl)


Piggy bank:  arca, -ae (H)


To go bankrupt:  conturbare (without direct object, or with rationes as direct obj) (C) (P)


Banter:  scommata, -um (Er)


Barbarous in speech:  opicus dictis (AG)


(Com. ILR 53)

Tonsor crines forfice tondet.  olim volsella vellebat, ut et ovium / bidentium vellera. vel abradit et deglabrat novaculae acie.
       A barber cuts hair with scissors.  At one time he plucked it out with tweezers (as also the wool of sheep).  Or he shaves it off and makes [the head / face] smooth with the sharp edge of a razor.

Coma / caesaries, quas Germani alunt, Poloni capronas, pectine pectitur.    (effeminati nonnuli cincinnos calamistro, si dis placet, crispant, et calvi, proh pudor, comam asciticiam, futile capillamentum adaptant.  digni sane, qui cycladas cum syrmate tractim gestent, et muliebrem habitum per omnia aemulentur). 
        Hair, which the Germans grow long (and) the Poles [grow] into forelocks/ bangs, is combed with a comb.  Some effeminate men curl their locks (indeed!) with a curling iron, and bald men (for shame!) fasten on themselves false hair, a pointless wig.  They are fit to wear long robes with a train dragging behind, and to vie with women's fashions in everything.

Tonstrina -- The Barber Shop (from Orbis Pictus)

Tonsor in tonstrina tondet crines et barbam forcipe, vel radit novacula, quam depromit e theca.
       A barber in a barber-shop cuts the hair and beard with scissors, and shaves with a razor, which he takes out of a case.

Et lavat super pelvim, lixivio deflutente e gutturnio, ut et sapone, et tergit linteo.   pectit pectine, crispat calamistro.
       He also washes [the hair] over a basin, the soapy water (?) running out of a laver, as also with soap, and wipes it with a towel.   He combs it with a comb and curls it with a curling iron/ curler.

Interdum secat venam scalpello, ubi sanguis propullulat.
       From time to time he cuts a vein with a scalpel, where the blood spurts out.


Barefoot:  excalceatus, -a, -um (S) 


To bargain / strike a bargain with s.o.:  cum aliquo pacisci  (Er) 


To be based on s.t.:  niti aliqua re (Fr)
            The charges on which the case is based:  crimina, quibus causa nititur


You bastard!  Scelus!  (T)

You filthy bastard!  Impurissime!  (T)


De Balneo et Munditie (Com. ILR 53)
      On the bath and cleanliness

Limpida faciem saepius abluere munditiei est;  fuco fucare (vel purpurissa oblinere) spurcitiei.
     To wash the face fairly often with clear water is cleanliness;  to doll it up with make-up or to smear it with rouge is nasty.

(Apage pulchritudinem ficticiam, ementitam, adventitiam et lenocinio ascitam).  
       To hell with an artificial, sham, extraneous and meretriciously appropriated beauty.

In thermis artus torpidi foventur calida vel tepida.  lavacra et balneae sordes atque illuvies eluunt;  omnem paedorem, sudorem et squalorem abstergunt et defricant. 
        Stiff joints are warmed in a bath house with hot or warm water. Baths and bathing places wash away dirt and filth.  They wipe and scrub away all dirt / stench, sweat and filth. 

Ubi tamen honestatis ergo subligacula / subligaria et castulae locum habent. 
       In those places, however, loin cloths and aprons have their use for the sake of decency. 

Sed vestimenta immunda / sordida lavantur in labro a lotrice, et lixivio ac sapone / smegmate mundantur.   aut everruntur saetaceo pectine, aut exterguntur spongia.  collaria roborantur amylo. 
        But soiled / dirty clothes are washed in a tub by a laundress and cleaned with lye and soap,  or they are  brushed with a bristly comb / brush, or rubbed with a sponge.  Collars are stiffened with starch.

Cilicio, topho ac pumice nosmet ipsi fricamur.  vascula stramento, vel eqiseto, vel echino stringuntur.  quisquiliae et analecta scopis verruntur.
         We ourselves are scrubbed with a wash cloth, tufa and pumice.  Small pots-and-pans are brushed with straw, or a horsetail [i.e. the plant], or a stiff brush.   Rubbish and scraps are swept up with a broom. 

Ubi putei iuges desiderantur / desunt, e quibus, crepidine circumdatis, tollenone et haustro vel situla haurias,  aquaeductus per tubos / siphones / siphunculas et canales, aut per incilia fieri convenit.
       Where reliable wells are not available, out of which, being fenced with a brandrith, you may draw water with a swing-beam / derrick / lever and a dipper or a bucket, it is appropriate that water ducts be provided through pipes / conduits, channels or through gutters. 

Unctiones, suffimenta / suffitus, pastilli, diapasmata, odoramenta, aspersiones ex ampullis, sunt (mollium homuncionum) et voluptuariorum, quibus delibuti, fragrant.
      Ointments, perfumes, breath-mints, scented powders, fragrances, sprays from bottles, bedaubed with which they smell sweet, are the concern of namby-pamby homunculi and men addicted to pleasure. 

Balneum -- The Bath (from the Orbis Pictus)

Qui cupit lavari aqua frigida descendit in fluvium.  In balneario abluimus squalores, sive sedentes in labro, sive conscendentes in sudatorium, et defricamur pumice aut cilicio. 
         Whoever wishes to bathe in cold water goes down into a river.  In a bath-house we wash off the dirt, either sitting in a tub or going up into the steam room, and we are rubbed with pumice stone or a wash cloth.

In apodyterio exuimus vestes et praecingimur castula / subligari.  tegimus caput pileolo et imponimus pedes telluvio.
       We take off our clothes in a change-room and we put on an apron / loin cloth.  We cover our head with a cap and put our feet in a basin.

Balneatrix ministrat aquam situla, haustam ex alveo, in quem defluit e canalibus.  balneator scarificat scalpro et applicando cucurbitas extrahit sanguinem subcutaneum, quem abstergit spongia.
        The bath-woman supplies water from a bucket, drawn out of a trough/ sink, into which it runs from pipes.  The bath-keeper lances [the arm] with a lancet / scalpel, and by applying cupping-glasses he draws the blood between the skin and the flesh, which he wipes away with a sponge. 


Bathroom (ie. the place where the toilet or the urinal is):  secessus, -us


To engage in battle/ enter into battle:  aciem committere (F)


To bear with s.o.:  ferre aliquem (T)
            Whom will he bear with if he will not bear with his parent?  Quem ferret si parentem non ferret?

Bear with me:  fer me (T)

To be unable to bear/ stand to do something:  non sustinere aliquid facere (Fr)


Beastly / bestial:  obscenus -a -um (L) (V)


To beat around the bush:  circumire

Not to beat around the bush:  nil circumitione uti (T)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem concidere -cidi -cisum (Jv)

To beat s.o. up/ pound s.o. out:  aliquem obtundere (Pl)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem mulcare (T)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem percolopare (P)

To beat s.o. to death:  aliquem mulcare usque ad mortem (T)

To beat s.o. up:  aliquem verberare (T)

To "beat" s.o. to s.t.:  occupare (AG)
     I would have eaten that cookie, if you hadn;t beaten me to it:  istud crustuli sumpsissem, nisi occupasses. 

To beat s.o. at a game:  aliquem ludo vincere (Er)


To be morally beautiful:  praeclarus esse

It's a beauty:  lepidum est (Pl)

Of remarkable beauty:  specie insignis (F)


What will become of me?  Quid me fiet?  (Fr)


Make the bed:  concinnare lectum (Fr)


De Cubiculo (Com. ILR. 52)
     Of the Bedroom

In dormitorio sponda et fulera / fulmenta / clinopodia cubile sustinent.  sed deficiente lecto, storea substernitur aut matta (aut, urgente necessitate, stramentum). 
       In the place where one sleeps a bedframe and legs support the bedding.   But where there is no bed, a mattress or mat is laid out (or, in an emergency, a straw pad).

Strato superiniicitur lodix et peristroma, et huic cervical.  tegetibus et stragulis nos integimus.           
      A sheet and blanket are thrown over the bed, and over this a bolster.  We cover ourselves with covers and blankets.

Pulvinar plumeus est, culcita tomento farcta.  pulvillis insidemus.
      A pillow has feathers, a cushion is stuffed with stuffing.  We sit on cushions. 

Matula vesicae levandae et secessus / latrina vel scuplium [?] alvo exonerandae cubiculo necessaria requisita sunt. 
       A bed pan/ chamber pot for relieving the bladder and a privy / toilet for easing the stomach are necessary requisites for a bedroom.

Grabbatus cum conopeis pro meridiana reclinatione est.                  
      A couch with draperies / curtains is for a siesta.

Qui supinus cubat, incubo / ephialte molestatur.  qui pronus dormit, anhelitu.           
      A person who lies on his back is troubled with nightmares / "the hag" ;  a person who sleeps face down, with breathing-difficulties.

Si edormisti et evigilas, vigila ne obdormias rursum, experrectusque prima luce, admodum diliculo alios fortiter inclama, expergefeceris.            
       If you have slept enough and you are awake, watch that you do not fall asleep again, and having awakened at first light, give a loud shout to the others just at day-break until you wake them up.

Hiberno / hiemali / brumali tempore antelucana diligentia probatur (etiam ante gallicinium).
     Pre-dawn work is approved of in winter, even before cock-crow. 


I beg you!:  oro obscecro! (Pl)


To begin s.t.  facere initium alicuius rei (T)

To begin with s.t.:  ab aliqua re incipereab aliqua re auspicari (Er)
      Let's begin with what is simplest:  auspicemur ab eo quod est simplisissimum.


The beginning of my troubles:  mihi principium mali (T)

From the beginning of the world:  post homines natos (Fr)


To begrudge something:  aliquid gravare (Pl)


To behave arrogantly:  se praebere superbum (C)

To behave unfairly:  se inique gerere (S)

To behave bravely:  fortiter facere (S)

Behaviour:  mores (C)  facta (T)


To behead s.o:  aliquem securi percutere (F)


Behind/ from behind:  pone (T)
     He tugged my coat from behind:  pone reprendit pallium.

From behind:  a tergo (F)

Belaboured/ overdone

Belaboured:  anxius (Fr)
            A belaboured speech:  oratio anxia


To bellow:  mugire


To bestow benefits on s.o.:  commoditatibus aliquem afficere (Er)

To reap a benefit:  decerpere fructum


To be beside oneself:  amens esse (Pl)

Besides:  praeterea (T)


To beslobber s.o. with kisses:  aliquem basiis conspuere (P)


To besmirch s.o. with s.t.:  inquinare aliquem aliqua re (P)

To besmirch s.o. with kisses:  aliquem basiis conspuere (P)


I'm doing my best:  fit sedulo (Pl)

I’ll do my best:  fiet sedulo (T)/  faciam sedulo (T)
       I'll do my best to advise them with such wisdom as I have:  sedulo moneo quae possum pro mea sententia.  


It’s better to….  Satius est + infinitive

It’s better than to….  Satius est quam + indirect statement (T)

It's better than.....  praestare .... quam  (Er)
      It's better to have something left over than not enough:  praestat aliquid superesse, quam deesse.

Things are starting to get better:  incipit res melius ire (C)

I feel better:  commodius me habeo (Fr)

There’s something else we had better be doing:  aliud est quod potius faceremus (T)

To had better:  melius esse + indirect statement (Pl)
     You'd better wake up:  melius est te expergisci


Between you and me (in imparting a secret):  quod intra nos sit, followed by indicative (S)


A biased argument:  iniqua oratio (T)


A big fish in a little pond:  gallus in suo sterquilino (S)

Bill/ invoice

Bill/ invoice/ statement of costs:  ratio


A bird house (or coup):  ornitho, -onis (Varro, ap. AG)


From birth/ since the day I was born:  postquam natus sum (Pl)


Bit by bit:  unciatim (T)


Bitch:  lupatria (P)   oblatratrix (AG)

To bitch-slap s.o.  depalmare aliquem (AG)


A bitter feeling:  armarulentia –ae  (Er)


To blab:  effutire (H)

Blabbermouth:   intimator (HA)


To blame s.o.:  in aliquem culpam conferre (Er)
To lay all the blame on s.o:  omnem culpam in aliquem imponere (T)


The blast of trumpets:  tubarum bombi (Er)


A blessing:  res bona (AG)
      Crassus is said to have had five of the greatest and most distinguished blessings:  Crassus traditur habuisse quinque rerum bonarum maxima et praecipua.


To turn a blind eye to s.t.:  aliquid praetermittere (T) 


To block s.o. (from doing s.t.):  se alicui opponere (quominus + subj) (F).


To be full-blooded:  boni sanguinis esse (S)


Blow away (as by an explosion)  tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum (Er)

To drive home a blow:  ictum perferre (V)


Out of the blue:  improviso (T) 

Blurt out

To blurt s.t. out:  aliquid effutire (T)


Without blushing/ unembarrassed:  salva fronte (Er)


To board ship:  navem conscendere (P)


Empty boasts:  gloriae inanes (AG)

Boasting:  magniloquentia, -ae (AG)

To boast / show off:  caudam iactare (Pr)


De Corpore, et primum de Membris Externis  (Com ILR. 21)
     Of the [human] body, and first, of the external parts.

Corporis nostri compages ex ossibus cum medulla, cartilaginibus, tendinibus, nervis, carne, musculis (ea carnis pulpa qua utimur ut organomotus spontanei pro arbitrio), cute triplici, et membranis seu involucris variis coagmentata est.  
       The structure of our body is joined together out of bones with marrow, cartilages [ / gristle], tendons, sinews, flesh, muscles (that flesh of the flesh which we use at our discretion for voluntary motion), a threefold skin, and various membranes, or envelopes.

Membra cohaerent arctis et perpetuis nexibus, in proportione decentissima.
       The parts are held together by close and continuous connection in a very handsome symmetry.

Nam quae bina sunt, ex opposito sibi ad latera locantur;  quae singula, per medium.
     For [the parts] that come in pairs are placed at the sides opposite one another;   [the parts] that are single, down the middle.

In vultuum lineamentis stupenda est varietas.
      There is an extraordinary variety in the features of faces.

Frons angusta, suilla est;  gibbosa, asina;  lata, bonae indolis et qualitatis;  rugosa, animi anxii;  caperata, iracundia nota;   erugata et exporrecta, effrontem arguit vel hilarem. 
     A narrow forehead is like a pig's;   one bulging, like an ass's.  A wide [forehead] is the sign of good nature and quality;  a wrinkled forehead, of an anxious disposition;  a knitted brow, the mark of an angry person;  a wrinkle-free, smoothed-out brow is evidence of an impudent or a cheerful person.

Pupilla oculi albugini insidens et inhaerens speculum est, obiectarum rerum imagines / idola in se recipiens.
      The pupil of the eye, sitting in and adhering to the white, is a mirror, receiving into itself the reflections / images of things presented to it.

Hanc palpebrae nictando humectant.  supercilia vero et cilia communiunt.
       The eyelids moisten it by blinking,  But the eyebrow and eyelashes protect it.

Sed hirci / canthi lachrimas sudant.  
     But the tear ducts ooze tears.

Tota dentium series infigitur in alveolos in utraque maxilla perfossos.
      The whole series of teeth is fastened into sockets recessed into both jaws.

Inter tempora et nasum, quem alii simum, alii resimum, alii aduncum habent  (et cuius globulus extat prominentior in homine quam in ceteris), , interiectae sunt genae sive malae, iisque subsunt maxillae.
       Between the temples and the nose, which some have flat, some turned up, some hooked  (and the tip of which sticks further out in a human than in the rest of animals), are placed the cheeks, and under them the jaw.

Per nares, ut cloacam, demanat mucus, quem vibrissae detinent, ne exsudet, nisi mucinio /strophiolo  mungatur.
      Through the nostrils, as through a drain, flows mucus, which the nose hairs hold back, lest it drip out, unless [the nose] is blown into a handkerchief.

Mentum virile primum lanugine, deinde barba tegitur;  labrum superiorius mystace.  quidam imberbes sunt; quidam barbatuli.  In eius medio nympha, subter buccula.
      A man's chin is at first covered in down, then a beard;  the upper lip, with a mustache. Some are beardless, others have sparse / beginners' beards.  In the middle of the chin is a dimple, beneath, a double chin.

Anterior pars colli iugulum est;  posterior cervix.  cavum est in imo collo, supra sternon et claviculos, ubi porcum jugulant.  
      The front part of the neck is the throat;  the back part is the nape.  There is a hollow at the bottom of the throat, above the sternum and collar bone, where they stick a pig.

Thorax sororiantibus mammis / mammulis (quarum eminent papillae), turgidus.  inferne ventrem habet et ad partes latera.
      The torso is [in the case of women] bulging with heaving breasts (the nipples of which stick out).   Below it has a belly and sides to the sides.

Costae duodecim ab axilla coeptae in hypochondria desinunt.
     The twelve ribs, beginning at the arm-pit, end at the abdomem.

In inguine, sub pube / pectine sunt pudenda / verenda.
      In the groin, under the pubis/ pubic hair are the privates / the modesty.

Infra ilia et coxas / coxendices femora sunt, sub poplite sura, sub genibus tibia et antetibiale.  illius os extremum in malleolum interiorem protuberat, huius in exteriorem. 
      Beneath the flanks and the hips / haunches are the thighs, under the ham is the calf, under the knees are the tibia and the fibula.  The end of  the former bulges out into an interior ankle, the end of the latter into an exterior ankle.

A suffragine planta pedis est, talos / malleolos, calcem, calcaneum, quo calcamus, tharsum (partem superiorem calci in adverso oppositum), plantae convexum / dorsum  solum / imam plantam, cumque digitis hallucem continens.
        Below the pastern bone [lower tibia?] is the foot-breadth, comprehending the ankles/ little hammers,  the heal,  heal bone, by which we stamp the foot [/ trample / walk all over ], the tharsum (the upper part of the foot opposed to the sole), the instep/ ridge/ the lower sole [ball?] and, with the little toes, the big toe.  [this description of the foot seems a bit confused].

Tergum superne habet scapulas.  post lumbos subsequentur nates, sessionis gratia clunibus circumvolutas.
       The back has shoulder blades in the upper part.  After the loins come the arse wrapped around with buttocks for the purpose of sitting.

Spina dorsi totius structurae / fabricae fultura est, ut erecti stare possimus.  constituitur autem e triginta quattuor vertebris contiguis (quarum amplissima, os sacrum, reliquas suffulcit), ut incurvari et inclinari queamus,  quod non fieret si os continuum esset.
     The spine of the back is the prop of the whole structure / frame, that we might stand upright.  it is made up of thirty four vertebrae (of which the largest, the os sacrum, supports the rest), closely joined together  so that we can bend and lean, which would not be possible if the bone were uninterrupted / all of one piece.

Manus -- largiore sensu comprehendit totum artum ab omoplata ad extremos digitos -- in se continet lacertosum / torosum bracchium, cubitum, ulnam, carpum, volam, quae diducta palma est, contracta pugnus.  illa alapam impingit / incutit, hic colaphum infringit.  dorsum manus / manus aversa non aeque occallescit ac palma.
       The hand -- in the broader sense it includes the whole limb from the omoplata to the finger tips -- includes a muscular / brawny forearm, the elbow, ell [ie the hollow opposite the elbow], the wrist, the hollow of the hand [ie, the cupped palm], which when spread is the palm, and contracted the fist. The former gives a slap, the latter deals a punch.  The back of the hand does not become equally calloused as the palm.

Digiti sunt quinque, singuli articulos tres, et totidem artuum iuncturas, condylos, habentes.
     There are five fingers, each having three phalanges and the same number of  finger junctures, or knuckles.

Pollice premimus, indice demonstramus.  verpus / medius prominet, inter quem et minimum seu auricularem -- est enim loco auriscalpii -- (digitellum, amatorem) interiacet / interponitur anularis.  
     We press with our thumb, we point out with our index finger.  The verpus or middle finger sticks out.  Between it and the smallest finger, or poking finger -- for it serves in place of an ear cleaner -- (the little finger, the lover) there lies/ is located the ring finger.

Unguibus scabimus, scalpimus, laceramus, lancinamus.
     With our nails we scratch, claw, tear, rip.

Sinistra / laeva tenet, dextra operatur omnia apte nisi quis ipse ineptus et iners.
     The left hand holds, the right hand carries out all the work fitly, unless some [operator] is himself inept and clumsy.

De Corporis Accidentibus (Com ILR.23)
      On Body-characteristics.

Iuxta exteriorem aspectum quidam videntur corpulenti, obesi, quadrati, alii graciles, exiles, macilenti,  et strigosi;  quidam formosi, alii deformes. 
      When it comes to external appearance, some look stout, fat, well-built [/robust], others are slender, thin, lean, skinny.

Secundum habitudinem interiorem vegeti aut morbosi;  robusti aut teneri.
       Regarding internal constitution, they are either healthy / vigorous or sickly;  strong or delicate.

Crispi facile calvescunt, rufi canunt.
      The curly-haired go bald easily.  Red-heads/ gingers go grey.

Cilones in phrenesin / phrenitida proclives sunt, et includuntur vacerrae.  
      People with bulging foreheads are inclined to madness, and are confined in a cage / an asylum [so Robothom's 17-c translation.  In classical Latin vacerra, -ae simply means a stock of wood].

Praestat / satius est luscum esse aut lippum quam caecum, surdastrum quam surdum, haesitantem quam balbum / balbutientem, blaesum quam mutum.  
      It is better / preferable to be squinty-eyed or weak-visioned (purblind) than blind;  hard-of-hearing than stone-deaf;  slow / halting of speech than stammering / stuttering, lisping than to be mute.

Strabo distorte, paetus oblique contuetur.  cocles monoculus est, lumine altero orbus / orbatus.  lusciosus caligat interdiu. myops non cernit nisi prope admota.  exophthalmus habet oculos prominentes, celophthalmus reductos orbes.
       A person with a strabismus [/cross-eyed] looks distortedly,  a squinter looks indirectly.  A person blind in one eye is one-eyed, being deprived of vision in the other.   A squinty-eyed person is weak-sighted during the day.  A near-sighted person cannot make things out unless they are brought close.  A bug-eyed person has eyes that stick out, a sunken-eyed person has recessed eyes.

Nasuti / nasones acriter odorari;  buccones et ventriculosi [ / ventriosi ] manducones / ingluviosi/ glutones;  capitones, labeones;  flacci, bronci brochi / brocchi / brocci] et iugulis non cavis, bardi / blitei / bruti esse putantur.
       People with big noses are supposed to have keen smell;  fat-cheeked and pot-bellied people, to be gluttons;  big-headed people [hydrocephalics?], blubber-lipped people, people with huge ears, buck-teeth and unhollow throats [?], [are supposed to be] dull-witted / foolish / stupid..

Reduvia, verruca, struma, scrophulae, polypus, gibbus / gibber, et quodvis tuber deformant.
     A hangnail, a wart, a cyst, swollen neck-glands, nasal polyps, a hump, or any knob-like swelling disfigures.

Similiter et naevi, lentigo, vitiligo, porrigo, impetigo / lichen, mentagra / mentigo, varix, lepra, et omnis macula.  
       Similarly with a mole, a spot / freckle, vitiligo, dandruff, psoriasis / eczema, scabbiness, a varicose vein, a leprous lesion, and every blemish.

Item siquis obstipus incedat aut cernuus.
      Likewise if someone walks with a limp or a stoop.

Calvitium alii sibi decori reputant, alii dedecori.  
      Some think that baldness becomes them, others that it is a blemish.

Claudicatio a luxatione est;  alioqui nec loripedes, nec balgi, nec vari, ne scauri, nec pansae, nec compernes/ plauti/ planci claudicant.
       A lame, halting gate is from a dislocation;  otherwise neither club-footed persons, nor the bow-legged, nor the swollen-ankled, nor the knock-kneed, nor the splay-footed, nor the flat-footed are lame.

Interrigo ab attritu est.
      Inerrigo [? R: "galling"] is from a rubbing off of the skin.

Spado est, cui testiculi / colei ablati sunt.
     A eunuch is someone whose testicles have been removed.


To be bold / unashamed:  perfrictae frontis esse (Er)

To put on a bold face:  os / faciem / frontem perficare (Er)


Bombastic style:  inflatum orationis genus (C)

To be bombastic:  turgere (H)


Booty:  manubiae -arum (Suet) 


A bore:  homo molestus (P)

Boring:  frigidus -a, -um (Jv) (Er)  putidiusculus, -a, -um

To be thoroughly bored:  pertaesus esse (AG)

To be boring:  frigeo, -ere (AG)
      How dull and boring Caecilius seemed  quantum stupere atque frigere Caecilius visus est.

To become boring:  refrigerari 

To be bored to death:  odio enicari (Pl)


A born orator:  natus ad dicendum (C)

Born to endure misery:  natus esse ferendis miseriis (T)

Born and bred:  natus altus educatus (Pl)
      I was born, bred and reared in Athens:  natus altus educatus sum Athenis.


Boss:  erus, -i;  era, -ae (Pl, T) 


To bother s.o.:  odiosus esse alicui (Pl)  /   molestus esse alicui (Pl)

To bother s.o.:  aliquem movere (P)
       The loss doesn't bother me so much as the carelessness of a good-for-nothing slave:  Non tam iactura me movet, quam neglegentia nequissimi servi.


To go to the bottom (i.e. to sink):   pessum (ab)ire (Pl)

To go to the bottom of the sea:  pessum (ab)ire in altum (Pl)

Bottom-feeder/ scum:  sentina, -ae (C) 


To overstep the bounds of s.t:  modum alicuius rei egredi (Fr)


Good boy!  lepidum caput! (Er)

A lover-boy:  amasiunculus, -i (P)


To be branded as...:  habere stigma + genit. (P)

To brand:  denotare (Ap)


To brandish a weapon:  telum vibrare (F)

Brass knuckles

Brass knuckles:  caestus, -us (ie. a pugilists’ glove, reinforced with brass studs)


To behave bravely:  fortiter facere (S)


Bravo!  Sophos! (P)   eu! (Pl)


Brazen confidens, -ntis (Er)

Brazenly:  cum confidentia (Er)


To break (a bone):  (ossum)  praefringere (T) 

To break up (into groups)  segregari (in turmas/ cohortes etc) (F)

To give s.o. a "break":  alicui missionem dare (P_

Breath/ breathe

To run out of breath:  spiritum insumere (Fr)

Out of breath:  anhelans  -ntis  (F)

To hold one’s breath:  spiritum retinere (Fr)   animam comprimere (T)

To breathe a word of s.t.  muttire aliquid (Pl)

To catch one's breath:  animam recipere (T)


Ill-bred:  illiberalis, -is, -e (Er)


To bribe s.o.:  corrumpere aliquem (F)


Brilliance:  lux, lucis (AG)
      Cato spoke with a great deal of charm, brilliance and elegance of diction:  M. Cato oratione usus est multa quidem venustate atque luce atque munditia verborum.


Night brings:  nox fert (Fr)
            We shall see what the night brings:  nox quid ferat cognoscemus

To bring someone (somewhere)  aliquem adducere ad.... (Pl)

To bring something (somewhere) aliquid afferre ad.... (Pl)

To bring oneself to do s.t:  animum inducere aliquid facere (H)

To bring s.t. to the point of s.t.:  aliquid perducere ad aliquid (S)

To bring back:  referre (S)

To bring s.t. upon oneself:  aliquid sibi contrahere  (Ap)


Brothel:  fornix, -icis (H)  lupanar -is


To bear the brunt:  maximam partem ferre (T) 


Brutishness/ bullying behaviour:  importunitas, -atis (Pl)


A young buck:  arietillus, -i (P)


Buddy (s.o. one hangs out with):  congerro –onis (Er)


Buffoon:  balatro, -onis (H)


Bulging:  distentus, -a, -um (Er)

Bull/ b.s./ humbug

b.s!  fallaciae! (Pl)


A bully:  vir importunus (T)

To bully s.o:  importunus esse alicui (T)


To bump/run into s.o. (ie. to meet unexpectedly):  aliquem incursare (Pl)  in aliquem incurrere (C)  in aliquem incidere (C)

To bump into s.o./ s.t. (i.e. to meet, meet with unexpectedly)  offendere aliquem/ aliquid (T, C.)
      I bumped into him on the street:  eum in platea offendi.

To bump into/ fall in with s.o. / s.t. (to meet with unexpectedly):  in aliquid/ in aliquem incidere (Cs)
     Some cohorts bumped into Caesar's battle line:  nonnullae cohortes in Caesaris agmen inciderunt.


Burst in on s.o.:  intervenire alicui (T)

To burst forth:  erumpere (F)


To "bury" oneself in s.t.:  se immergere in aliqua re (Pl)
      I buried myself in the midst of a public meeting:  in contionem mediam me immersi.


To beat around the bush:  schemas loqui (P)


Bushel:  modius, -i

To measure s.t. by the bushel:  aliquid modio metiri (P)

Business/ busy

To mind ones own business:  suum negotium agere (T)

I make it my business to….  Id ago ut…. (T)

To do business:  negotium gerere (Pl)  aliquid rei seriae agere (F)

To run a business:  negotiationem exercere (P)

To keep oneself busy (with something):  se exercere (aliqua re)  (T)

To be busy:  satago, -ere, sategi

To have one’s hands full of s.t.:  satagitare alicuius rei (AG)

To have business with s.o:  alicui esse res cum aliquo  (Pl)
     I have business with him:  mihi est res cum eo

To make/keep s.o. busy with s.t.:  aliquem occupare aliqua re (Pl)

To close down a business:  claudere tabernam (H)


A busy body:  curiosus, i / curiosa, -ae (Er)


Bustle:  tumultus (T) (S)


But if:  quodsi

Butt/ rump/backside/ arse

Butt:  puga, -ae (H)  as a part-for-the-whole for the entire body (H. Sat.1.2)

Butter up

To butter s.o. up:  subpalpari  aliquem (Pl)/  subblandiri alicui (Pl)


To buy with cash:  fide Graeca mercari (Pl)

By all means / by no means

By no means:  neutiquam  (T)  nequaquam

By all means:  maxime (Pl)

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